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Presentation guidelines for preparing a Paper PDF Print E-mail

General Guidelines

  • Page size: A4 (8.27" × 11.69").
  • Page orientation: Preferably Portrait.
  • Page margins: At least 1 inch or 2.5 cm on all the sides.
  • Font: Times New Roman or Arial, 12 points throughout the manuscript.
  • Line spacing: One and a half line (1.5 lines) throughout all portions of the manuscript.
  • Page numbers: All pages should be numbered consecutively starting from the title page.
  • Units: Use SI units, and give equivalent SI units in parenthesis when the use of other units is unavoidable.

Manuscripts should be set out as follows: title page, abstract and key words, main text, acknowledgements, references, tables, captions to illustrations.


The title page should clearly contain the following information:

  • Title of the article: Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific.
  • Name of authors: First name(s) or initial(s) and surname of each author.
  • Address: The name and address of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.
  • Corresponding author: Also identify the corresponding author. Name, telephone, email address and fax number of the corresponding author.
  • Short running title: A short running title of less than 60 characters including spaces should also be provided.


The abstract should be of up to 250 words, summarising the contents of the article. It is important, especially for indexing services, that this must be intelligible independently of the article. It should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions.

Authors are asked to supply 3 to 6 keywords (in alphabetical order) to be used as an aid to coding and indexing.


The article may be divided into the following sections. Long articles may require subheadings within some sections to clarify their content.

  • Introduction: It should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject and aims of the study.
  • Materials and Methods: It should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced.
  • Results: They should be presented with clarity and precision.
  • Discussion: It should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on the topic.
  • Conclusions: They should be concisely written in few sentences at the end of Discussion.

Concise acknowledgment of contributors not listed as authors is welcome. The authors may wish to acknowledge funding agency, a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair that provided only general support.

Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Table must be prepared in the word format. Do not use vertical lines. Figure should be prepared using JPEG file. Each table/ figure should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their first citation in the text and appropriate legend should also be included. Within the text, tables and figures should be referred to by number (e.g. Table 1 or Figure 1), and preferred position and groupings in the text should be clearly indicated.

REFERENCES References should be listed at the end of the article, arranged alphabetically according to authors' names and then by date. Journal names should be given in full. The following style should be used in the reference section:
Citations in the text have the form (Sharma 2011) where there is a single author; (Fredericksen and Bateman 2010) where there are two authors; and (Zhang et al. 2010) where there are multiple authors; et al. in the text should not be italicized. Where an author has published several titles in the same year, include a lowercase after the year, e.g. (Younis 2006a), (Younis 2006b), which must then be matched to the relevant work cited in the list of references.

Full references in the alphabetical list should be given as follows:

  1. Reference to a journal publication: Sharma, C.M., Baduni, N.P., Gairola, S., Ghildiyal, S.K., Suyal, S. 2010. Tree diversity and carbon stocks of some major forest types of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Forest Ecology and Management, 260(12): 2170–2179.
  2. Reference to a book: Strunk, Jr., W., White, E.B. 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York.
  3. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B. 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, In: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
  4. Online journal: Meadows, R. 2010. Stress may Drive Plant Patterns. PLoS Biology [online] 8 (October 2010) [accessed 12 December 2010]. Available at:
  5. Thesis or dissertation: Lijten, A.J.M. 1998. Densified Veneer Wood Reinforced Joints with Expanded Tube Fasteners. PhD thesis. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
  6. Lecture: Lockton, A. 2010. BSBI Recorders Conference. 20 September. Discussion on Bryology lecture. Shrewsbury: Botanical Society of the British Isles.


Further considerations

  • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked".
  • References are in the correct format for this journal.
  • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa.

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